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Image Credit: Copyright 2020 3rs info hub - Neda Rajaeean

The kidney is a vital organ with multiple functions. During toxicogical studys also the impact of a test substance on renal function is investigated. Efforts are being made to mimic kidney functions in vitro and to reduce the number of animals used for such studies, e.g.with 3D kidney models and kidney-on-a-chip approaches.

(Please note: The models (and the companies that are presenting them) listed here are chosen purely as examples and are not intended to influence one's choice of a specific product.)