The kidneys are bean shaped organs, which are located at each side of the spine and are the main control system for maintaining the homeostasis of the body. A healthy kidney filters half a cup of blood every minute and creates urine from the waste products and the excess water. They also control the fluid balance of the body, the blood pressure, the electrolyte levels and produce several hormones. Medications can cause acute kidney injury, leading to high blood pressure, shortness of breath, drowsiness, cramps and coma. Therefore, investigational new drugs have to be checked for nephrotoxicity. In the past, mainly animal testing was used for this purpose. Nowadays there are various other options, including cell-cultures, artificial organs and computer-based models, which can save money, time and animal lives. Down below you will find various links to inform you about the kidneys and alternative methods on testing nephrotoxicity.