Springe direkt zu Inhalt


The hormones released by endocrine glands such as the gonads, thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas are involved in the control of all bodily functions. Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are chemicals that interfere with the natural action of hormones. In addition to mammals, this can also affect birds, fish and insects.
EDs can act on hormone receptors (as antagonists or agonists) or disrupt the production, release, transport or degradation of natural hormones. A disturbance of the hormone balance is therefore possible, which can, for example, cause damage to the development of organisms. There is an urgent need for new approach methodologies that enable the investigation of substances and their effects on the hormone system. The complexity of hormone effects also makes it difficult to map them in individual test systems.
The thyroid gland is a hormone-producing gland and is located at the front of the neck below the larynx. Its two lobes are connected by a so-called isthmus. The follicular epithelial cells (thyrocytes) produce the iodine-containing thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine, which control or influence various functions in the body. These include body temperature (by increasing the basal metabolic rate), heart rate, blood pressure, fat and sugar metabolism and intestinal activity. During the embryonic phase and in newborns, thyroid hormones are important for the development of the nervous system.
Calcitonin is released from the parafollicular (C) cells of the thyroid gland, which contributes to the regulation of calcium metabolism.

3Rs Course | 3Rs Quiz | Disclaimer